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The toxicity of molybdate to freshwater and marine organisms. III. Generating additional chronic toxicity data for the refinement of safe environmental exposure concentrations in the US and Europe
Heijerick, D.G.; Carey, S. (2017). The toxicity of molybdate to freshwater and marine organisms. III. Generating additional chronic toxicity data for the refinement of safe environmental exposure concentrations in the US and Europe. Sci. Total Environ. 609: 420-428. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.070
In: Science of the Total Environment. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0048-9697; e-ISSN 1879-1026, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Molybdate; Marine assessment; Freshwater assessment; FCV derivation; PNEC derivation

Authors  Top 
  • Heijerick, D.G., more
  • Carey, S.

Abstract
    The freshwater and marine long-term ecotoxicity datasets used in the European REACH registration dossiers for molybdenum and molybdenum compounds resulted in the derivation of a HC5,50%,freshwater (38.2 mg Mo/L) and HC5,50%,marine (5.70 mg Mo/L) by means of the statistical extrapolation method. Both datasets, however, did not meet the US-EPA information requirements for deriving Final Chronic Values (FCV) that were based on chronic data. US-EPA compliance was achieved by generating chronic no-effect data for the freshwater benthic amphipod Hyalella azteca and the marine inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina, using sodium molybdate dihydrate as test substance. A 42d-EC10 of 44.6 mg Mo/L for reproduction was determined in a water-only exposure with H. azteca. For M. beryllina, a 37d-NOEC of 139 mg mMo/L for standard length and blotted wet weight was found. Other endpoints (e.g., survival, hatching success) proved to be less sensitive. Data were added to the existing chronic toxicity datasets, together with new long-term no-effect values that were identified in open literature for brown trout Salmo trutta, the marine alga Isochrysis galbana, the marine snail Nassarius dorsatus and the marine barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. The updated data sets resulted in a freshwater and marine HC5,50% of 35.7 and 6.85 mg Mo/L, respectively. The same data sets were also used for the determination of US-EPA FCVs, where the FVCfreshwater was 36.1 mg/L, and the FCVmarine was 3.85 mg Mo/L. As the Final Plant Values for both aquatic environments were higher than their respective FCVs, the Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) for molybdenum is equal to the FCV.

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