|Integrating toxicology and ecology: putting the "eco" into ecotoxicology|
Chapman, P.M. (2002). Integrating toxicology and ecology: putting the "eco" into ecotoxicology. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(1): 7-15
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Ecology; Ecotoxicology; Risk assessment; Risk assessment; Risk assessment; Risks; Sediments; Marine
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- Chapman, P.M., correspondent
Environmental toxicology has been and continues to be an important discipline (e.g., single-species testing for screening purposes). However, ecological toxicology (ecotoxicology - more realism in tests, test species and exposures) is required for predicting real world effects and for site-specific assessments. Ecotoxicology and ecology have shown similar developmental patterns over time; closer cooperation between ecologists and toxicologists would benefit both disciplines. Ecology can be incorporated into toxicology either extrinsically (separately, e.g., providing information on pre-selected test species) or intrinsically (e.g., as part of test species selection) - the latter is preferable. General guidelines for acute and chronic testing and criteria for species selection differ for ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology, and are outlined. An overall framework is proposed based on ecological risk assessment (ERA), for combining ecology and toxicology (environmental and ecological) for decision-making. Increased emphasis on ecotoxicology represents a shift from reductionist to holistic approaches.