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Historical biogeography of the highly diverse brown seaweed Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae)
Vieira, C.; Camacho, O.; Sun, Z.; Fredericq, S.; Leliaert, F.; Payri, C.; De Clerck, O. (2017). Historical biogeography of the highly diverse brown seaweed Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 110: 81-92. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.ympev.2017.03.007
In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Elsevier: Orlando, FL. ISSN 1055-7903; e-ISSN 1095-9513, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Lobophora J.Agardh, 1894 [WoRMS]
    Marine
Author keywords
    Algorithmic species estimation; Ancestral area reconstruction;Historical biogeography; Lobophora; Molecular dating

Authors  Top 
  • Vieira, C., more
  • Camacho, O.
  • Sun, Z.
  • Fredericq, S.
  • Leliaert, F., more
  • Payri, C.
  • De Clerck, O., more

Abstract
    The tropical to warm-temperate marine brown macroalgal genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) recently drew attention because of its striking regional diversity. In this study we reassess Lobophora global species diversity, and species distributions, and explore how historical factors have shaped current diversity patterns. We applied a series of algorithmic species delineation techniques on a global mitochondrial cox3 dataset of 598 specimens, resulting in an estimation of 98–121 species. This diversity by far exceeds traditional diversity estimates based on morphological data. A multi-locus time-calibrated species phylogeny using a relaxed molecular clock, along with DNA-confirmed species distribution data was used to analyse ancestral area distributions, dispersal-vicariance-founder events, and temporal patterns of diversification under different biogeographical models. The origin of Lobophora was estimated in the Upper Cretaceous (−75 to −60 MY), followed by gradual diversification until present. While most speciation events were inferred within marine realms, founder events also played a non-negligible role in Lobophora diversification. The Central Indo-Pacific showed the highest species diversity as a result of higher speciation events in this region. Most Lobophora species have small ranges limited to marine realms. Lobophora probably originated in the Tethys Sea and dispersed repeatedly in the Atlantic (including the Gulf of Mexico) and Pacific Oceans. The formation of the major historical marine barriers (Terminal Tethyan event, Isthmus of Panama, Benguela upwelling) did not act as important vicariance events. Long-distance dispersal presumably represented an important mode of speciation over evolutionary time-scales. The limited geographical ranges of most Lobophora species, however, vouch for the rarity of such events.

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