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Dietary marine n-3 PUFAs do not affect stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat maternal separation model
van Diest, S.A.; van den Elsen, L.W.J.; Klok, A.J.; Welting, O.; Hilbers, F.W.; van de Heijning, B.J.; Gaemers, I.C.; Boeckxstaens, G.E.; Werner, M.F.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; de Jonge, W.J.; van den Wijngaard, R.M. (2015). Dietary marine n-3 PUFAs do not affect stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat maternal separation model. J. Nutr. 145(5): 915-922. https://hdl.handle.net/10.3945/jn.114.201731
In: Journal of nutrition. AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN: Philadelphia,. ISSN 0022-3166; e-ISSN 1541-6100, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    diet; irritable bowel syndrome; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids;mast cells; maternal separation odel; omega-3; omega-6; visceralhypersensitivity

Authors  Top 
  • van Diest, S.A.
  • van den Elsen, L.W.J.
  • Klok, A.J.
  • Welting, O.
  • Hilbers, F.W.
  • van de Heijning, B.J.
  • Gaemers, I.C.
  • Boeckxstaens, G.E.
  • Werner, M.F.
  • Willemsen, L.E.M.
  • de Jonge, W.J.
  • van den Wijngaard, R.M.

Abstract
    Background: Although never evaluated for efficacy, n-3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are commercially offered as treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Objective: This study was designed to investigate, in a mast cell dependent model for visceral hypersensitivity, whether this pathophysiologic mechanism can be reversed by dietary LCPUFA treatment,via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) activation. Methods: Maternally separated rats were subjected to hypersensitivity-inducing acute stress at adult age. Reversal was attempted by protocols with tuna oil supplemented diets [4% soy oil (SO) and 3% tuna oil (SO-T3) or 3% SO and 7% tuna oil (SO-T7)] and compared with control SO diets (7% or 10% SO) 4 wk after stress. The PPARG agonist rosiglitazone was evaluated in a 1 wk preventive protocol (30 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)). Erythrocytes were assessed to confirm LCPUFA uptake and tissue expression of lipoprotein lipase and glycerol kinase as indicators of PPARG activation. Colonic mast cell degranulation was evaluated by toluidine blue staining. In vitro, human mast cell line 1 (HMC-1) cells were pretreated with rosiglitazone, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore or compound 48/80 and evaluated for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and beta-hexosaminidase release. Results: Stress led to visceral hypersensitivity in all groups. Hypersensitivity was not reversed by SO T3 or control treatment [prestress vs. 24 h poststress vs. posttreatment area under the curve; 76 +/- 4 vs. 128 +/- 12 (P < 0.05) vs. 115 +/- 14 and 82 +/- 5 vs. 127 +/- 16 (P< 0.01) vs. 113 +/- 19, respectively]. Comparison of SO-T7 with its control showed similar results [74 +/- 6 vs. 103 +/- 13 (P < 0.05) vs. 115 +/- 17 and 66 +/- 3 vs. 103 +/- 10 (P < 0.05) vs. 117 +/- 11, respectively]. Erythrocytes showed significant LCPUFA uptake in the absence of colonic PPARG activation. Rosiglitazone induced increased PPARG target gene expression, but did not prevent hypersensitivity. Mast cell degranulation never differed between groups. Rosiglitazone and LCPUFAs significantly reduced PMA/calcium ionophore induced TNF-alpha release but not degranulation of HMC-1 cells.. Conclusion: Dietary LCPUFAs did not reverse stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in maternally separated rats. Although further research is needed, claims concerning LCPUFAs as a treatment option in IBS cannot be confirmed at this point and should be regarded with caution.

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