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Identification, growth and toxicity assessment of Coolia Meunier (Dinophyceae) from Nova Scotia, Canada
Lewis, N.I.; Wolny, J.L.; Achenbach, J.C.; Ellis, L.; Pitula, J.S.; Rafuse, C.; Rosales, D.S.; McCarron, P. (2018). Identification, growth and toxicity assessment of Coolia Meunier (Dinophyceae) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Harmful Algae 75: 45-56. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.hal.2018.04.001
In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam; Shannon; Paris. ISSN 1568-9883; e-ISSN 1878-1470, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Growth rate
    Properties > Biological properties > Toxicity
    Properties > Physical properties > Thermodynamic properties > Temperature
    Coolia monotis Meunier, 1919 [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    Zebrafish bioassay

Authors  Top 
  • Lewis, N.I.
  • Wolny, J.L.
  • Achenbach, J.C.
  • Ellis, L.
  • Pitula, J.S.
  • Rafuse, C.
  • Rosales, D.S.
  • McCarron, P.

Abstract
    Benthic dinoflagellates of the toxigenic genus CooliaMeunier (Dinophyceae) are known to have a global distribution in both tropical and temperate waters. The type species, C. monotis,has been reported from the Mediterranean Sea, the NE Atlantic and from Rhode Island, USA in the NW Atlantic, whereas other species in the genus have been reported from tropical locations. Cooliacells were observed in algal drift samples collected at seven sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Clonal isolates were established from four of these locations and identified with light and scanning electron microscopy, then confirmed with genetic sequencing to be C. monotis. This is the first record of this species in Nova Scotia. The isolates were established and incubated at 18 °C under a 14:10 L:D photoperiod with an approximate photon flux density of 50–60 μmol m−2 s−1. Growth experiments using an isolate from Johnston Harbour (CMJH) were carried out at temperatures ranging from 5 to 30 °C under the same photoperiod with an approximate photon flux density of 45–50 μmol m−2 s−1. Cells tolerated temperatures from 5 to 25 °C with optimum growth and mucilage aggregate production between 15 and 20 °C. Methanol extracts of this isolate examined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS) did not show the presence of the previously reported cooliatoxin. Toxic effects were assayed using two zebrafish bioassays, the Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) assay and the General Behaviour and Toxicity (GBT) assay. The results of this study demonstrate a lack of toxicity in C. monotisfrom Nova Scotia, as has been reported for other genetically-confirmed isolates of this species. Conditions in which cell growth that could potentially degrade water quality and provide substrate and dispersal mechanisms for other harmful microorganisms via mucilage production are indicated.

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