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Oxidative stress-induced bioprospecting of microalgae
Chokshi, K.; Pancha, I.; Ghosh, A.; Mishra, S. (2017). Oxidative stress-induced bioprospecting of microalgae, in: Kumar, M. et al. (Ed.) Systems biology of marine ecosystems. pp. 251-276. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-3-319-62094-7_13
In: Kumar, M.; Ralph, P.J. (Ed.) (2017). Systems biology of marine ecosystems. Springer: Cham. ISBN 978-3-319-62092-3. xviii, 351 pp. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-3-319-62094-7, more

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Keyword
    Organic compounds > Carbohydrates > Glycosides > Pigments > Chromatic pigments > Carotenoids
Author keywords
    Microalgae; Bioprospecting; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen; Omics species;

Authors  Top 
  • Chokshi, K.
  • Pancha, I.
  • Ghosh, A.
  • Mishra, S.

Abstract
    Microalgae are sunlight-driven cell factories found in diverse marine and freshwater environments. With simple growth requirements (light, CO2, N, P and K), microalgae produce various valuable products like carotenoids, antioxidants, fatty acids, enzymes, polymers, peptides, toxins and sterols. Their photosynthetic mechanism is similar to plants, but due to their simple cellular structure and submergence in an aqueous environment, in most cases, they have an efficient access to water, CO2 and other nutrients. In addition, their growth is faster and photosynthetic efficiency is higher compared to terrestrial crop plants. Their shorter generation time allows production of lipids and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time, which can be easily converted into biofuels. Due to these reasons, microalgae are considered as an alternative renewable feedstock for biofuel production. In any organism, fluctuating environmental conditions trigger a series of physiological processes and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are highly reactive and damage proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA, ultimately resulting into cellular toxicity. Stress-induced ROS accumulation is counteracted by cellular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Excessive ROS damage the ability of the cells to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage, ultimately leading to oxidative stress conditions. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress is a mediator for increased accumulation of lipid and various bioactive metabolites in microalgae. This chapter provides comprehensive information on bioprospecting of microalgae under oxidative stress conditions, mainly for their carotenoid accumulation and biofuel potential. An overview of omics platform including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics is also provided in the context of better understanding the stress response of microalgae at cellular level and using these advanced approaches for the development of microalgal biofactory.

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