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Embryonic, larval and juvenile development of the Grouper, Epinephelus merra (Teleostei, Serranidae)
Sazaki, J.; Teruya, K.; Ueno, S. (1999). Embryonic, larval and juvenile development of the Grouper, Epinephelus merra (Teleostei, Serranidae). Bull. Inst. Oceanic Res. & Develop., Tokai Univ. 20: 145-155
In: Bulletin of Institute of Oceanic Research and Development. Tokai University. Tokai University. Institute of Oceanic Research and Development: Shimizu. ISSN 0289-680X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Sazaki, J.
  • Teruya, K.
  • Ueno, S.

Abstract
    We examined the embryonic, larval and juvenile development of the Grouper, Epinephelus merra, with eggs spontaneously spawned in 1997. The eggs were pelagic and spherical, 750 ± 31µm, with an oil globule of 181 ± 16µm in diameter (n = 800). Hatching occurred 22h 24min after spawning at a water temperature of 25.8°C. The newly - hatched larvae were 1.38mm in total length (TL). At 2.62mm TL, two days after hatching, the mounth was open and the larvae began to feed on rotifers. The larvae of the grouper had developed the peculiar pigmentation patterns, such as melanophores in clusters on the basal part of the caudal fin and dorsal part of the gut. Xanthophores, considered to be one of the characteristics of the fish had developed on the dorsal and ventral side of the tail of Epinephelus merra. At 3.22mm TL, five days after hatching, the ventral spine and 2nd dorsal spine had emerged and began to elongate and their tips were rounded like a spoon. At 19.0mm TL, all of the fins had the adult complement of rays and spines. At 21.0mm TL, the fish actively moved from the outer layer to the middle depths in the tank and fed on Artemia nauplii. At 27.0mm TL, the color of the body was similar to the adult and the fish began to shift to the bottom. At 32.0mm TL, the fish shifted from a pelagic to a demersal way of life.

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