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Limits to adaptations in marine organisms: the model Macoma balthica
Hummel, H. (1999). Limits to adaptations in marine organisms: the model Macoma balthica. Océanis (Paris) 25(4): 563-579
In: Océanis (Paris). Institut Océanographique: Paris. ISSN 0182-0745, more
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    Adaptation strategies in the marine bivalve Macoma balthica, the Baltic clam, are shown by means of changes in the performance and energy budget. Near the southern distribution limit of the clams in SW France (Gironde) their performance (growth, glycogen, free amino acids, genetic traits) indicates a bad performance. Beyond the southern distribution limit, low food concentrations near the coastline and pollutants in the estuaries, together with higher temperatures, cause a negative annual energy budget and the ultimate disappearance of the species from territories south of the Gironde. In the Arctic, a strong performance of clams was shown, coinciding with genetic adaptations connected to speciation at subspecies level.

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