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Ecosystem engineering creates a new path to resilience in plants with contrasting growth strategies
Soissons, L.M.; van Katwijk, M.; Li, B.; Han, Q.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J. (2019). Ecosystem engineering creates a new path to resilience in plants with contrasting growth strategies. Oecologia 191(4): 1015-1024. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04544-4
In: Oecologia. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0029-8549; e-ISSN 1432-1939, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Recovery from disturbance; Resistance to stress; Seagrass; Sulphide intrusion

Authors  Top 
  • Soissons, L.M., more
  • van Katwijk, M., more
  • Li, B.
  • Han, Q.

Abstract
    Plant species can be characterized by different growth strategies related to their inherent growth and recovery rates, which shape their responses to stress and disturbance. Ecosystem engineering, however, offers an alternative way to cope with stress: modifying the environment may reduce stress levels. Using an experimental study on two seagrass species with contrasting traits, the slow-growing Zostera marina vs. the fast-growing Zostera japonica, we explored how growth strategies versus ecosystem engineering may affect their resistance to stress (i.e. addition of organic material) and recovery from disturbance (i.e. removal of above-ground biomass). Ecosystem engineering was assessed by measuring sulphide levels in the sediment porewater, as seagrass plants can keep sulphide levels low by aerating the rhizosphere. Consistent with predictions, we observed that the fast-growing species had a high capacity to recover from disturbance. It was also more resistant to stress and still able to maintain high standing stock with increasing stress levels because of its ecosystem engineering capacity. The slow-growing species was not able to maintain its standing stock under stress, which we ascribe to a weak capacity for ecosystem engineering regarding this particular stress. Overall, our study suggests that the combination of low-cost investment in tissues with ecosystem engineering to alleviate stress creates a new path in the growth trade-off between investment in strong tissues or fast growth. It does so by being both fast in recovery and more resistant. As such low-cost ecosystem engineering may occur in more species, we argue that it should be considered in assessing plant resilience.

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