|Deep-sea near-bottom swarms of pelagic amphipods Themisto: observations from submersibles|
Vinogradov, G.M. (1999). Deep-sea near-bottom swarms of pelagic amphipods Themisto: observations from submersibles. Sarsia 84: 465-467
In: Sarsia. University of Bergen. Universitetsforlaget: Bergen. ISSN 0036-4827, more
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Swarms of Themisto abyssorum and one of Themisto libellula (Hyperiidea, Hyperiidae) were observed during four dives of Mir deep-sea manned submersibles in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas at depths of about 1000 m. Concentrations of the amphipods in the most dense swarm were as high as 25-38 individuals per cubic meter in the layer 100-5 m above the bottom. However, such swarming does not seem to be obligatory for Themisto. The animals picked up (food?) particles directly from the seabed.