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Accumulation and transformation of DSP toxins in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis during a toxic episode caused by Dinophysis acuminata
Moroño, Á.; Arévalo, F.; Fernández, M.L.; Maneiro, J.; Pazos, Y.; Salgado, C.; Blanco, J. (2003). Accumulation and transformation of DSP toxins in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis during a toxic episode caused by Dinophysis acuminata. Aquat. Toxicol. 62(4): 269-280
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Accumulation; Biological poisons; Models; Dinophysis acuminata Claparède & Lachmann, 1859 [WoRMS]; Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Moroño, Á.
  • Arévalo, F.
  • Fernández, M.L.
  • Maneiro, J.
  • Pazos, Y.
  • Salgado, C.
  • Blanco, J.

    The time course of several outbreaks of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) producer Dinophysis acuminata and the consequent kinetic of accumulation and loss of toxins in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis feeding on them was studied. Samples of mussels and seawater were frequently (2-3 times a week) collected from a raft in the Ría de Vigo. DSP toxins content of mussels and water was analyzed by HPLC-FD and phytoplankton was quantified in an inverted light microscope. Only okadaic acid (OA) and some of its conjugated forms (OA CF), estimated by enzymatic hydrolysis, were found in the plankton samples obtained, comprised mainly of D. acuminata cells. The main accumulated form in mussels was OA reaching a maximum of 10.1 µg OA g-1 in the digestive gland (d.g.) in 16 days, falling below the quarantine level (ca. 2 µg OA g-1 d.g.) by 45 days. The low polarity conjugated forms (LPCF), estimated by hexane extraction, accounted for 6.2% of the total toxin burden of the mussels. To quantify the rates of the processes involved in the accumulation, transformation and loss of the toxins, two dynamic models, a one-compartment and a two-compartment, including OA and its conjugated forms as variables were designed and implemented. The one-compartment model provided a good fit to the OA and LPCF actual data (r²=0.92 and r²=0.94, respectively). The two-compartment model did not fit the data markedly better than its one-compartment counterpart (r²=0.93 and r²=0.95, for OA and LPCF, respectively). High hydrolysis rates were estimated for most of the OA CF, which means that these forms came largely from the ingested plankton. The low estimated acylation rates support the previous point and suggest that the formation of LPCF by direct acylation of the OA is of little importance in M. galloprovincialis. Only in cases where the intoxication period is very long, can the formed acyl-derivatives be important, because they seem to accumulate for a long time in the mussels, as suggested by the low hydrolysis and depuration rates estimated from model fitting.

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