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Strategies of marine dinoflagellate survival and some rules of assembly
Smayda, T.J.; Reynolds, C.S. (2003). Strategies of marine dinoflagellate survival and some rules of assembly. J. Sea Res. 49(2): 95-106
In: Journal of Sea Research. Elsevier/Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Amsterdam; Den Burg. ISSN 1385-1101, more
Peer reviewed article  

Also published as
  • Smayda, T.J.; Reynolds, C.S. (2003). Strategies of marine dinoflagellate survival and some rules of assembly, in: Philippart, C.J.M. et al. (Ed.) Structuring Factors of Shallow Marine Coastal Communities, part II. Journal of Sea Research, 49(2): pp. 95-106, more

Available in  Authors 

    Algal blooms; Diatoms; Dinoflagellates; Phytoplankton; Red tides; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Smayda, T.J., correspondent
  • Reynolds, C.S.

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed to govern bloom-species selection and community organisation within these habitats. Assembly is moulded around an abiotic template of light energy, nutrient supply and physical mixing in permutative combinations. Species selected will have one of three basic (C-, S-, R-) strategies: colonist species (C-) which predominate in chemically disturbed habitats; nutrient stress tolerant species (S-), and species (R-) tolerant of shear/stress forces in physically disturbed water masses. This organisational plan of three major habitat variables and three major adaptive strategies is termed the 3-3 plan. The bloom behaviour and habitat specialisation of dinoflagellates and diatoms are compared. Dinoflagellates behave as annual species, bloom soloists, are ecophysiologically diverse, and habitat specialists whose blooms tend to be monospecific. Diatoms behave as perennial species, guild members, are habitat cosmopolites, have a relatively uniform bloom strategy based on species-rich pools and exhibit limited habitat specialisation. Dinoflagellate bloom-species selection follows a taxonomic hierarchical pathway which progresses from phylogenetic to generic to species selection, and in that sequence. Each hierarchical taxonomic level has its own adaptive requirements subject to rules of assembly. Dinoflagellates would appear to be well suited to exploit marine habitats and to be competitive with other phylogenetic groups, yet fail to do so.

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