|Reproduction cycles and strategies of the cold-water sponges Halisarca dujardini (Demospongiae,Halisarcida), Myxilla incrustans and Iophon piceus (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the White Sea|
Ereskovsky, A.V. (2000). Reproduction cycles and strategies of the cold-water sponges Halisarca dujardini (Demospongiae,Halisarcida), Myxilla incrustans and Iophon piceus (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the White Sea. Biol. Bull. 198: 77-87
In: Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory: Lancaster, Pa. etc.. ISSN 0006-3185, more
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The reproductive development of the Demospongiae species Halisarca dujardini (Halisarcida), Myxilla incrustans and Iophon piceus (Poecilosclerida) from Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, the White Sea) was studied histologically during 1982-1994 and 1997. These species are all viviparous. Halisarca dujardini inhabits shallow waters (1.5-5 m); M. incrustans and I. Piceus are common in a more stable environment at depths between 15 and 25 m. Initiation of sexual reproduction stages is dependent upon water temperature. Reproductive effort is low in Myxilla incrustans and I. Piceus (reproductive elements contribute 7.3% and 12% of maternal tissue volume respectively), but much higher in H. dujardini (up to 69% of the parental tissue volume). Reproduction leads to localized destruction of maternal tissue for M. incrustans and I. Piceus and complete disorder of central and basal parts of the choanosoma of H. dujardini after each period of reproduction. Myxilla incrustans and I. Piceus reproduce throughout the hydrological summer, but reproduction in H. dujardini is restricted to 3 weeks. The average life span of M. incrustans and I. Piceus is more than 4 years, and that of H. dujardini is about 7-12 months. The data suggest that M. incrustans and I. Piceus are K-strategists, whereas H. dujardini is an r-strategist.