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Revised Description of the Fine Structure of in situ “Zooxanthellae” Genus Symbiodinium
Wakefield, T.S.; Farmer, M.A.; Kempf, S.C. (2000). Revised Description of the Fine Structure of in situ “Zooxanthellae” Genus Symbiodinium. Biol. Bull. 199: 76-84
In: Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory: Lancaster. ISSN 0006-3185, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Wakefield, T.S.
  • Farmer, M.A.
  • Kempf, S.C.

    The fine structure of the symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium has been well described. All of the published descriptions are based on tissue that was fixed in standard aldehyde and osmium fixatives and dehydrated in an ethanol series before embedding. When the technique of freeze-substitution was used to fix tissue from Cassiopeia xamachana, Aiptasia pallida, and Phyllactis flosculifera and prepare it for embedding, thecal vesicles were revealed within the in situ symbionts of all three species. Although these structures have been identified in cultured symbionts, they have never been described in the in situ symbionts. A review of the literature has revealed several instances where thecal vesicles were either overlooked or identified incorrectly. Thus the formal description of the genus Symbiodinium, which describes the in situ symbionts, contains information that is based on artifact and should be revised. A revision of the genus is suggested, and the true nature of these structures and their significance in the symbiotic association are discussed.

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