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A comparative approach to study inhibition of grazing and lipid composition of a toxic and non-toxic clone of Chrysochromulina polylepis (Prymnesiophyceae)
John, U.; Tillmann, U.; Medlin, L.K. (2002). A comparative approach to study inhibition of grazing and lipid composition of a toxic and non-toxic clone of Chrysochromulina polylepis (Prymnesiophyceae). Harmful Algae 1(1): 45-57
In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam; Shannon; Paris. ISSN 1568-9883, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Algae; Biological poisons; Grazing; Inhibitors; Lipids; Chrysochromulina polylepis Manton & Parke, 1962 [WoRMS]; Oxyrrhis marina Dujardin, 1841 [WoRMS]; ANE, North Sea [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • John, U., correspondent
  • Tillmann, U.
  • Medlin, L.K., more

Abstract
    Since the massive bloom in 1988 in the North Sea, the prymnesiophyte flagellate Chrysochromulina polylepis Manton et Parke has been known for its ichtyotoxicity. Laboratory experiments using two different clones of C. polylepis were conducted in a comparative approach. Both clones were nearly similar in size and shape, but differed in their toxicity, as demonstrated by the Artemia bioassay. In order to study the effects of toxic C. polylepis on protozooplankton grazers, grazing experiments were performed with the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina Dujardin as grazer. A first experiment was carried out in order to follow batch culture growth and initial grazing of O. marina when fed toxic or non-toxic clones of C. polylepis. Ingestion of the toxic clone was 27% of ingestion when fed with the non-toxic clone. When O. marina was fed with the toxic clone, vacuoles within O. marina contained fewer food particles per cell and the cells attained slower division rate (58% of the division rate estimated for the non-toxic clone). A second experiment was conducted to determine the grazing and growth response of O. marina as a function of algal food concentration. Profound differences in ingestion, clearance, division and gross growth efficiency of O. marina when fed the two clones of C. polylepis again were apparent. However, even at algal concentrations of 400×103 ml-1, O. marina is not killed by the presence or by the ingestion of toxic C. polylepis, indicating that the toxin deters grazers. In addition to grazing experiments, lipid classes and fatty acids of both algal clones were analysed and compared in order to follow the hypothesis that toxicity of C. polylepis is caused by liposaccharides, lipids, or fatty acids. However, the chemical composition with respect to lipid classes and fatty acids of both clones were quite similar, making an involvement of these substances in the toxicity towards Artemia and O. marina unlikely.

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