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Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Hoff, P.T.; Van Dongen, W.; Esmans, E.L.; Blust, R.; De Coen, W.M. (2003). Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquat. Toxicol. 62(4): 349-359. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-445X(02)00145-5
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 278875 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 [WoRMS]; Fresh water
Author keywords
    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid; PFOS; Carp; Aspartate aminotransferase; Alanine aminotransferase; DNA integrity; Peroxisome proliferation; Inflammation; Biomarker

Authors  Top 
  • Hoff, P.T., more
  • Van Dongen, W.
  • Esmans, E.L.

Abstract
    In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects were assessed in liver and serum of the exposed organisms. The investigation of the hepatotoxicity of PFOS included the determination of the peroxisome proliferating potential (peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidase and catalase activity) and the compounds influence on the average DNA basepair length (ABPL) by agarose gel electrophoresis. Total antioxidant activity (TAA), cholesterol and triglyceride levels were monitored in the serum. After 1 day of exposure the ABPL was significantly increased in the 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. After 5 days of exposure significant increases relative to the control were observed for the 16, 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. Enzyme leakage from the liver was investigated by measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum. At 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS a significant increase in serum ALT activity became apparent after 5 days of exposure with values ranging from 159 to 407% relative to the control. For serum AST activity a significant increase for the 864 ng/g treatment group was observed with a value of 112% relative to the control. Determination of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into liver tissue as assessed through myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver, was used as an indicator for inflammation. It appeared that inflammation was not involved in the observed membranous enzyme leakage for the 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS treatment groups. The results of this study suggest that PFOS induces inflammation-independent enzyme leakage through liver cell membranes that might be related to cell necrosis. Furthermore, results show that PFOS does not significantly affects serum antioxidant levels nor does it clearly induce peroxisome proliferation in carp. This study also points out that PFOS might interfere with homeostasis of the DNA metabolism. The results of these biochemical analyses were used to perform an initial hazard assessment study indicating that PFOS levels observed in tissues of wildlife populations could induce a clear rise in serum transaminase levels indicative for disruption of hepatocyte membrane integrity.

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