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Carbon acquisition mechanisms in Chara tomentosa
Ray, S.; Klenell, M.; Choo, K.-S.; Pedersén, M.; Snoeijs, P. (2003). Carbon acquisition mechanisms in Chara tomentosa. Aquat. Bot. 76(2): 141-154.
In: Aquatic Botany. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0304-3770, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Alkalinity; Carbon fixation; Carbonic anhydrase; Dissolved inorganic carbon; Ion exchange; P; Photosynthesis; Uptake; Chara tomentosa Linnaeus, 1753 [WoRMS]; ANE, Baltic, Bothnia Gulf [Marine Regions]; Brackish water
Author keywords
    Chara tomentosa; characean; proton pump; carbonic anhydrase; anionexchanger; charasomes; photosynthesis; pH; alkalinity; carbon uptakemechanisms

Authors  Top 
  • Ray, S.
  • Klenell, M.
  • Choo, K.-S.
  • Pedersén, M.
  • Snoeijs, P., correspondent

    Carbon uptake mechanisms of the stonewort Chara tomentosa from the brackish Baltic Sea were studied by recording changes in pH, alkalinity and inorganic carbon concentrations of the seawater medium during photosynthesis in a closed system. The use of inhibitors identified three mechanisms: (1) a vanadate-sensitive P-type H+-ATPase (proton pump) was involved in carbon uptake. This was previously shown for perfused cells of Chara corallina, but not for living cells. (2) Periplasmic carbonic anhydrase that catalyses the dehydration of HCO3- into CO2 outside the cell membrane was highly active during carbon uptake, also at high pH (>9). (3) At high pH, there was direct uptake of HCO3- with the help of an anion exchange protein, which previously has not been shown in Chara. We also document here the occurrence of charasomes in the cell membrane of C. tomentosa, always with mitochondria located in their direct vicinity. The simultaneous high periplasmic carbonic anhydrase and proton pump activities and the occurrence of charasomes suggest proton-pump driven H+ extrusion and membrane transport of CO2 derived from HCO3- as the major form of DIC acquisition in this alga. Probably, this occurs in acidic bands in C. tomentosa in which we found a banding pattern of CaCO3 incrustations (alkaline bands). The results were compared with a similar study on the green alga Cladophora glomerata from the same area, which had very low carbonic anhydrase activity (almost negligible), no structures isolating the periplasm from the bulk seawater medium analogous to charasomes and no CaCO3 incrustation.

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