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Evaluations of marine reserves as basis to develop alternative livelihoods in coastal areas of the Philippines
Kühlmann, K.-J. (2002). Evaluations of marine reserves as basis to develop alternative livelihoods in coastal areas of the Philippines. Aquacult. Int. 10(6): 527-549
In: Aquaculture International. Springer: London. ISSN 0967-6120, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Author 
Document type: Conference paper

Keywords
    Marine; Brackish water

Author  Top 
  • Kühlmann, K.-J.

Abstract
    The 11 marine reserves along the Leyte Gulf, Eastern Samar, Philippines were quantified in terms of reef slope composition, hard coral coverage and standing fish biomass by manta tow and transect dive survey from 1998 to 1999. Based on the assessed ecological conditions (Condition Index, CI; Coral Coverage Index, CCI; Reef Condition Index, RCI; Fish Biomass) and derived ranking, suitable small-scale alternative livelihoods (aquaculture or land-based) to be implemented nearby these reserves were discussed and developed with the involvement of the local stakeholders composed of fishers, farmers, Non-Government Organization and Local Government Units, in a 3-day planning workshop.The reserves' RCI (0.20 to 0.40) resulted in fair (9 reserves) and poor (2 reserves) conditions as indicated by 64 to 68% of non-living and 32 to 36% of living slope substrate, CI of 0.15 to 0.54, CCI of 0.15 to 0.49, and fish biomass of 1.8 to 19.6 t km-2. One reserve with the highest ecological ranking was determined as a local monitoring station to educate local fishers and farmers. For other marine reserves with high ecological conditions and located outer of Leyte Gulf, the farming of Eucheuma sp., Holothuria sp. and Pinctada sp. were suggested. While, rearing of Haliotis sp., Siganus sp., or Scylla sp. in mangrove-friendly aquaculture systems, rice farming and eco-tourism were suggested for low ranking reserves. The potential benefits of these livelihoods and the success in conserving the marine resources may enhance the quality of life of the coastal populace if there is a strong multi-sectoral cooperation.

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