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The response of Black Sea ecosystem to human activities
Staneva, J.; Lancelot, C. (2000). The response of Black Sea ecosystem to human activities, in: Balopoulos, E.T. et al. (Ed.) International conference. Oceanography of the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea. Similarities and differences of two interconnected basins, Zappeion international conference Centre, Athens, Greece, 23 to 26 February 1999. pp. 251
In: Balopoulos, E.T. et al. (Ed.) (2000). International conference. Oceanography of the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea. Similarities and differences of two interconnected basins, Zappeion international conference Centre, Athens, Greece, 23 to 26 February 1999. Research in Enclosed Seas Series, 8. EC: Brussel. ISBN 92-828-9019-8. 494 pp., more
In: Research in Enclosed Seas Series. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities: Luxemburg, more

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Proceedings [38146]
Document type: Conference paper

Keywords
    Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water

Authors  Top 
  • Staneva, J.
  • Lancelot, C., more

Abstract
    We present in this paper the state of the art on the 3D coupled physical-biological model of the Black Sea ecosystem developed in the scope of the EC EROS-21 project. The final 3D ecosystem model results from the online coupling of the Modular Ocean Model modified for its application in the Black Sea with the mechanistic ecological model BIOGEN. Both models were developed, tested and analyzed separately before their online coupling. The Modular Ocean Model was implemented in the Black Sea with two horizontal resolutions: 5 or 15 min. New parametrizations were added in order to take into account the specific physical processes prevailing in this almost enclosed ocean basin. Among these, special attention was given to the parameterization of the inflow/plume originating from Straits of Bosphorus that accounts for the impact of Mediterranean water on the internal mixing. The diapycnal mixing was calibrated against independent measurements of chemical tracers. Data on Chernobyl tracer penetration were used for Model validation. This comparison shows that the model simulates correct I y the pathways and the rates of penetration of signals originating at sea surface and presents a reliable tool for water mass and ecological modeling. Model results were further analyzed for a better understanding of physical processes in the Black Sea. This analysis shows that substantial amount of cold intermediate water is formed on the shelf and on the continental slope and then is transported by the main cyclonic gyre into the basin interior and deeper layers (up to 100-120 m). Anticyclonic eddies between the jet-front and the coast enhance the penetration of cold water into the halocline. Interestingly enough, simulations show that the transport and mixing associated with eddies provide an important mechanism for penetration of cold water into the halocline. BIOGEN is a mechanistic ecological model of high trophic complexity (34 biogeochemical state variables) that was established in order to assess the response of the north-western Black Sea ecosystem to human-induced changes and predict its future evolution. The model was first implemented by coupling it with physical models of increasing spatio-temporal complexity and running it with different human-induced forcings (cultural eutrophication, hydraulic management, introduction of exotic species, fishing pressure) in order to analyse its ability to reproduce correctly historical ecological events recorded since the 1960. Based on model runs, the relative role of cultural eutrophication, introduction of exotic species and fishing pressure in ecosystem destabilisation is discussed. Preliminary results of the performance of coupled 3-D physical -biological models are analysed.

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