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Refugial races and postglacial colonization history of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus lacustris in northern Europe
Vainio, J.K.; Väinölä, R. (2003). Refugial races and postglacial colonization history of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus lacustris in northern Europe. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 79(4): 523-542
In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Academic Press: London; New York. ISSN 0024-4066, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Allozymes; Freshwater crustaceans; Population genetics; Amphipoda [WoRMS]; Crustacea [WoRMS]; Gammarus lacustris G.O. Sars, 1864 [WoRMS]; Europe [Marine Regions]; Europe, Fennoscandia; Marine; Fresh water

Authors  Top 
  • Vainio, J.K.
  • Väinölä, R., more

    The systematic structure and postglacial population history of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus lacustris were explored in an allozyme survey of 65 populations across Northern Europe. A strong multilocus pattern of differentiation discriminated populations of the north-east (north-eastern Norway, northern Finland) from those in the west and the south (southern and central Scandinavia, Denmark, Poland). This principal division is attributed to postglacial colonization of the area by two main refugial races or lineages, one from the east (Russia), the other from the south (north-western European continent). The strongly diverged Eastern and Western races (Nei's D= 0.3, from 22 loci) now meet in a secondary contact zone across a narrow sector of northernmost Norway. Genetic population compositions in this zone vary in a mosaic pattern, and show no evidence of reproductive incompatibility. Similar contacts of eastern and western lineages, far older than the latest glaciation, are now known from a number of taxa and they constitute a general pattern in Fennoscandian phylogeography. Within the Western Gammarus race, the populations through coastal north-western Norway are further distinguished from those in southern Scandinavia and Denmark by a set of unique alleles at high frequencies (D = 0.12). This suggests an independent early colonization of the coastal region by another distinct stock, either along an early deglaciated coastal corridor from the south-west, or directly from the ice-free continental shelf off the Norwegian coast - a hypothesis that has also previously been presented for G. lacustris, and parallels controversial suggestions of local refugia for other taxa in Scandinavia. The coastal population type only later could come into contact with Gammarus invading over the mountains from the south; these two population types now smoothly intergrade.

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