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Improved strategies for linking coastal science and users
Crossland, C.J. (2000). Improved strategies for linking coastal science and users, in: Pacyna, J.M. et al. (Ed.) Socioeconomic aspects of fluxes of chemicals into the marine environment, scientific report on the workshop on socioeconomic aspects of fluxes of chemicals into the marine environment, Norwegian institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway 8-10 March, 1999. pp. 200-210
In: Pacyna, J.M. et al. (Ed.) (2000). Socioeconomic aspects of fluxes of chemicals into the marine environment, scientific report on the workshop on socioeconomic aspects of fluxes of chemicals into the marine environment, Norwegian institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway 8-10 March, 1999. EC: Luxembourg. ISBN 92-828-8575-5. 246 pp., more

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    Marine

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  • Crossland, C.J.

Abstract
    Globally, the role and place of science within the community is under increasing challenge. This challenge sterns from scientists failing to communicate broadly their findings, failing to engage with users (or stakeholders) in describing and applying their enterprise, and a resistance to entering into relevant public debate and conflict. Scientists must actively address these issues by actively seeking and developing mechanisms that build links and activities with users and interest groups, especially in relation to the coastal zones and its "people pressures". Efforts continue to be made in various part of the world to try and bridge the gap between science and the various users. There is no overwhelming "recipe" for success. Rather some win- win and effective outcomes have resulted that provide of ten small-scale successes from the matching of national and regional cultures and political systems with issues and conflict resolution. Where there have been successes in building bridges between science and users, these have had a strong dependence on the "people" factor -communication, mediation, collaboration. Successes have reflected the development of joint goals and actions through the identification of common agendas and recognition of both common issues and elements of conflict, for which there is a will between all parties to jointly resolve. The key elements for success depend on building between all users and scientists: -a common understanding of the underpinning science and uncertainty, a common vocabulary and language, a development of trust between the parties, an explicit way to manage expectations (what science can deliver and what it can not), and establishment of "ownership" of the issues, science and approach for resolving the problems. This takes time and effort by all parties, and often scientists are uncomfortable with the sociological dimensions of establishing the effective dialogue and collaboration. Using a case example as a model, some key points and options for strategies of approaches can be drawn out which give guidance to building effective science-user bridges.

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