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Texture and genesis of Dutch Wadden Sea sediments
Van Straaten, L.M.J.U. (1951). Texture and genesis of Dutch Wadden Sea sediments, in: van Andel, Tj. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Sedimentology, Groningen-Wageningen, Netherlands, 5-12 July 1951. pp. 225-244
In: van Andel, Tj. (Ed.) (1951). Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Sedimentology, Groningen-Wageningen, Netherlands, 5-12 July 1951. [S.n.]: 's-Gravenhage. 332 pp., more

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  • Van Straaten, L.M.J.U.

    In the Dutch Wadden sea area (s.l.) the writer distinguished between the following environments:1. Marshes, above mean high water level with sedimentation of on the whole rather fine material, distinctly laminated and often with a peculiar "wavy" texture. 2. Marsh creeks, canyon-like incisions in the marshes, usually meandering and sometimes anastomosing, with sedimentation of a usually rather fine material, well laminated, often showing current ripple textures in the sand, but without "wavy" textures. 3. Corophium flats, in the higher regions of the intertidal zone proper. Few distinct water-courses. Sediments often muddy, although not infrequently containing coarse sand grains. Original stratification disturbed by burrowing action of Corophium andother organisms. 4. Arenicola sand flats, with occasional shallow sand gullies more or less meandering, often braiding. Sediments mainly sand, without many distinct textures. 5. Mussel bank areas, often with gully systems. Sediments usually very muddy, textures ranging from untouched primary laminations to textures completely disturbed by burrowing organisms. 6. Bare mud flats, rich in meandering gullies. The mud usually beautifully laminated owing to continuous reworking of the sediment by the wandering gullies. 7. Channels, the deep and broad incisions in the Wadden sea bottom, with sediments of a sandy or muddy composition and rich in textures due to current ripples. Two types of sedimentation exist: 1. A very slow "vertical" sedimentation, resulting in horizontal beds, occurring on the surface of tidal flats. Where currentsare weak and/or where protection is present in the shape of mussel banks or vegetation of halophytes, mud deposits may form. Elsewhere the slow rate of vertical sedimentation causes a predominatingly sandy character of the bottom. 2. A rapid "lateral" sedimentation, giving rise to inclined beds, formed on the sides of gullies and channels. The quick burial of freshly deposited mud by sand taking place on the prograding banks brings about a more muddy composition of the bottom. Finally some details are given concerning the mechanism of sedimentation of sand and mud and the prevailing of sharp boundaries between sand and mud laminae over gradual transitions.

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