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Exotic invaders of the meso-oligohaline zone of estuaries in the Netherlands: why are there so many?
Wolff, W.J. (1999). Exotic invaders of the meso-oligohaline zone of estuaries in the Netherlands: why are there so many? Helgol. Meeresunters. 52: 393-400. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/BF02908913
In: Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. ISSN 0174-3597, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Marine

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Abstract
    The numbers of exotic species introduced into brackish waters (5–20 psu) and high-salinity waters (> 20 psu) in the Netherlands are hypothesized to reflect species richness in such waters elsewhere in the world. Notwithstanding the fact that species numbers in brackish waters all over the world are lower than in high-salinity waters, the numbers of introduced species in these waters in the Netherlands are about equal. Alternative hypotheses to explain this phenomenon are: (1) because most ports are situated in brackish regions, brackish-water species stand a better chance of being transported; (2) because brackish-water species are more tolerant of conditions in ballast water tanks, these species have a better chance of being transported alive than high-salinity species; and (3) because brackish waters have few species, it is easier for an introduced species to establish itself in brackish waters. None of the latter three hypotheses can be rejected and probably they all play a part in explaining the phenomenon. The third hypothesis, however, seems most likely.

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