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Use of the terms protandry, protogyny, and hermaphroditism in malacology
Hoagland, K.E. (1984). Use of the terms protandry, protogyny, and hermaphroditism in malacology. Am. Malacol. Bull. 3(1): 85-88
In: American Malacological Bulletin. American Malacological Union: Hattiesburg. ISSN 0740-2783, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Hermaphroditism; Malacology; Protandry; Protogyny; Shellfish; Mollusca [WoRMS]; Marine

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  • Hoagland, K.E.

    The terms protrandry, protogyny, and hermaphroditism haveb distinct and precise meanings to theoretical ecologists, reproductive biologists, and evolutionary biologists. However, some malacologists have used these terms in other ways, causing the theoretical workers to misunderstand and misapply the reproductive patterns of mollusks. " Protandry" should be used to describe animais thal change sex from male to female without reverting to male at a later time. Likewise, protogyny involves a single sex change, from female to male, and is rare in the Mollusca. Only evidence obtained from the study of individual animals can be accepted as proof thal sex change occurs. Age- or size-specific sex ratio data are circumstantial evidence requiring further substantiation.

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