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Asymmetry in the embryonic chromatophore pattern of the squid Loligo forbesi (Mollusca: Cephalopoda): a proxy for developmental instability
Gowland, F.C.; Boyle, P.R.; Noble, L.R. (2003). Asymmetry in the embryonic chromatophore pattern of the squid Loligo forbesi (Mollusca: Cephalopoda): a proxy for developmental instability. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 83(5): 1101-1105
In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press/Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom: Cambridge. ISSN 0025-3154, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Chromatophores; Marine molluscs; Temperature tolerance; Cephalopoda [WoRMS]; Loligo forbesii Steenstrup, 1856 [WoRMS]; Mollusca [WoRMS]; ANE, British Isles, Scotland [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Gowland, F.C.
  • Boyle, P.R.
  • Noble, L.R.

Abstract
    The effect of thermal stress upon pattern development in Loligo forbesi was investigated. Levels of pattern disruption and pattern asymmetry were measured by examining the chromatophores of hatchlings reared at three constant temperatures (8, 12 and 16°C). Results indicate a strong positive correlation between thermal stress and disruption of embryonic chromatophore pattern. Asymmetry in chromatophore pattern occurs non-directionally and can therefore be described as fluctuating asymmetry.

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