|The Norwegian coast|
Skei, J.; Bakke, T.; Molvaer, J. (2000). The Norwegian coast, in: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 1. Regional chapters: Europe, The Americas and West Africa. pp. 17-30
In: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) (2000). Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 1. Regional chapters: Europe, The Americas and West Africa. Pergamon: Amsterdam. ISBN 0-08-043207-7. XXI, 934 pp., more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Skei, J.
- Bakke, T.
- Molvaer, J.
A dominant feature of the Norwegian coastline is the deep Norwegian Trench to the south, outside a transition zone of skerries and islands and shallow silled fjords. The latter frequently contain anoxic water. To the west and north the coast is characterised by a shallow shelf, islands and deep and long fjords dissecting the coastline. These fjords are usually well ventilated due to deep sills. The long coastline encompasses gradients in climate, depth regimes, physio-chemical factors and varied biological habitats. The majority of the human population is situated along the coast and the environmental impact from domestic and industrial waste is particularly noticeable on the southern coastline where the fjords are not very suitable as consumption of seafood in more than 10 fjords due to high levels of contaminants (dioxins, PCBs, PAHs, cadmium). Remedial actions have been taken to reduce contaminant input during the last decade, and one of the main environmental challenges at the turn of the millennium will be to reduce the impacts from secondary sources (contaminated sediments and dump sites). Offshore the main challenge will be to assess the potential effects of large volumes of contaminated produced water, and management of the many drilling waste piles on the seabed when the fields are closed down. An overall challenge for the Norwegian coast is the potential impact of climatic changes altering the major current systems, the fresh water input and the transboundary impacts from downstream effects of atmospheric and water transport of contaminants.