|The North Sea|
Ducrotoy, J.-P.; Elliot, M.; De Jonge, V.N. (2000). The North Sea, in: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 1. Regional chapters: Europe, The Americas and West Africa. pp. 43-63
In: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) (2000). Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 1. Regional chapters: Europe, The Americas and West Africa. Pergamon: Amsterdam. ISBN 0-08-043207-7. XXI, 934 pp., more
The North Sea is a semi-enclosed, epi-continental large marine ecosystem of northwestern Europe. It is relatively shallow (average depth 90 m), and extends north to the Norwegian Trench (700 m). The climate is temperate. Because of highly developed industry and agriculture in its watershed, pollution from contaminants and nutrients has been a major environmental issue for several decades. Atmospheric pathways of contaminant inputs are also important. Fisheries and the protection of species and habitats have become major concerns, and legislation is still developing to address threats to biological diversity, especially of coastal areas which are under pressure from numerous activities. The regulatory framework for the management of the North Sea is constantly changing. The 1992 'Paris Convention' came into force under the auspices of the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPARCOM) in 1998. With the increasing influence of the European Union, there is considerable overlap between the EU and OSPAR, leading to duplication between these and other organisations such as the International Conferences for the Protection of the North Sea and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Although a great deal of scientific research has been carried out in this region, the need for good scientific data is still a crucial precursor to management.