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Southern Brazil
Zanardi Lamardo, E.; Caruso Bícego, M.; Mendes de Castro Filho, B.; Bruner de Miranda, L.; Aparecida Prósperi, V. (2000). Southern Brazil, in: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 1. Regional chapters: Europe, The Americas and West Africa. pp. 731-747
In: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) (2000). Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 1. Regional chapters: Europe, The Americas and West Africa. Pergamon: Amsterdam. ISBN 0-08-043207-7. XXI, 934 pp., more

Available in Authors 
Document type: Review

Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Zanardi Lamardo, E.
  • Caruso Bícego, M.
  • Mendes de Castro Filho, B.
  • Bruner de Miranda, L.
  • Aparecida Prósperi, V.

Abstract
    Brazil has a large and extended coastline. Due to the history of the country and the facilities the littoral zone offers, the coastal zone is overpopulated, with 50% of the total population of the country living there. The coast of Brazil has many ports, industries and tourism activities, which intensify in the southern part of the country, which is the focus of this chapter. The Southern Brazil coast, here defined from Abrolhos (Bahia) to Chui (Rio Grande do Sul) is distinct from the rest of the country's coast due to its geographic characteristics and intense development. Southern Brazil contains many different ecosystems such as sandy beaches, beautiful islands, mangroves, forests and some lagoon complexes. Associated with them is a variety of flora and fauna that make this region pleasant and unusual, attracting many tourists. In addition this region is considered the most developed part of the country, encompassing large cities, many industries, petroleum, harbour, fishing and agricultural activities, among others. As a consequence, some of the coastal and shallow marine systems have been polluted with heavy metals and organic compounds which come from domestic and industrial effluents. Some ecosystems which are already intensively degraded include Vitória, Guanabara and Santos Bays, as well as the coastal lagoons of Rio Grande do Sul. In the last 20 years environmental concerns have been increasing and some attempts to reverse this situation have been undertaken. The government created some laws, Secretariats and Environment Agencies to deal with several problems, and a few programmes have been created to monitor and evaluate the ecosystems. Interactions with public and non-governmental organizations are also taking place to protect such ecosystems and, where possible, help them to recover.

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