Ramachandran, S. (2000). Southeast India, in: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 2. Regional chapters: The Indian Ocean to The Pacific. pp. 161-173
In: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) (2000). Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 2. Regional chapters: The Indian Ocean to The Pacific. Pergamon: Amsterdam. ISBN 0-08-043207-7. XXI, 920 pp., more
|Available in|| Author |
|Document type: Review|
|Author|| || Top |
The seas along the southeastern states of India, totalling approximately 1860 km, are described in this chapter. Covering the States of Tamilnadu and Andhrapradesh, the ecologically important and distinctive sites are the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay, Vedaranyam, Pichavaram, Pulicat Lake, the Godavari-Krishna delta and the Coringa mangroves. Economically important areas and centres of industry include Tuticorin, Nagapattinam, Cuddalore, Chennai, Nizampattinam, Kakinada and Vishaghapatnam. The coastal population density is 20 to 600/km², and more than 9 million people live along these coastal areas. The major activities that cause degradation of coastal ecosystems in these areas are disposal of untreated domestic and industrial wastes, port and harbour activities, ocean traffic, exploration and exploitation of minerals, oil and gas, as well as natural hazards such as storm surges. Both coastal erosion and siltation of river mouths are major problems in some of these areas as well. Reduction of freshwater flow in the rivers due to the construction of dams for irrigation purposes has affected coastal ecosystems and the stability of coasts. The rapid development of activities and the increasing coastal population are threatening the health of seas and their resources. Fisheries have stagnated during the past five years and environmental degradation is evident through the reduction of biodiversity, loss of habitats, reduction in mangroves and by impacts on coral reefs. Community participation in integrated coastal zone management plans and strict implementation of those plans are required for the sustainable utilisation of marine resources and conservation of biodiversity.