|Implementation of the International North Sea Conference. Declarations by Belgium: the case of Toxics Reductions Programmes|
Maes, F. (1998). Implementation of the International North Sea Conference. Declarations by Belgium: the case of Toxics Reductions Programmes. Int. J. Mar. Coast. Law 13(3): 337-354
In: International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law. Kluwer Law International: The Hague; Gaithersburg; London; Boston. ISSN 0927-3522, more
Chemical pollutants; Environmental protection; Hazardous materials; International agreements; International law; International organizations; Marine environment; Marine pollution; Policies; Political aspects; Pollutants; Pollution control; Pollution convention; Pollution legislation; Toxicants; ANE, Belgium [Marine Regions]; ANE, North Sea [Marine Regions]; Marine
In June 1995 the Fourth North Sea Conference Declaration was signed by the Ministers responsible for the protection of the North Sea, by the European Commission and by the government of the Swiss Confederation. The North Sea Conference Declarations have a history dating back to 1984 when the first Ministerial Conference on the protection of the North Sea was held in Bremen, followed by the Second North Sea Conference Declaration signed in London in 1987 and the Third North Sea Conference Declaration signed in the Hague in 1990. The North Sea Ministerial Declarations are political commitments which can, however, create legal effects. This article describes the methods of implementation of the Declarations in general, i.e., indirectly through international organizations or directly by the government concerned. It then goes on to explain the toxic reduction provisions of the first, second, third and fourth North Sea Conference Declarations. Finally, it examines the actions taken by Belgium to implement the Declarations, taking into consideration specific instruments, substances and amount of reductions, and the relationship between the federal government and regions and mechanisms for cooperation.