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The Gulf of Thailand
Hungspreugs, M.; Utoomprurkporn, W.; Nitithamyong, C. (2000). The Gulf of Thailand, in: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 2. Regional chapters: The Indian Ocean to The Pacific. pp. 297-308
In: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) (2000). Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 2. Regional chapters: The Indian Ocean to The Pacific. Pergamon: Amsterdam. ISBN 0-08-043207-7. XXI, 920 pp., more

Available in  Authors 
Document type: Review

Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Hungspreugs, M.
  • Utoomprurkporn, W.
  • Nitithamyong, C.

Abstract
    The Gulf of Thailand is a semi-enclosed shallow sea bordered by four countries in Southeast Asia: namely Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia and Vietnam. Twenty-one Thai rivers discharge directly into the Gulf and the Mekong River, which discharges into the adjacent South China Sea and has a major influence on the circulation and salinity of the Gulf water. Several important habitats such as mangrove, coral reefs and seagrasses exist in the coastal area of the Gulf. These habitats have degraded to a certain extent as a result of anthropogenic causes. Political conflict prevented co-operation among the littoral States for almost 40 years before joint surveys could resume in 1998. The Gulf used to be very productive for fisheries but has declined greatly in recent years. Non-living resources, e.g. oil and gas production, have replaced fisheries since 1990. Co-operative scientific research to gain more understanding of the Gulf is progressing with the help of international agencies like the IOC/WESTPAC and SEAPOL.

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