|The potential yield of artificial upwelling mariculture|
Roels, O.A.; Haines, K.C.; Sunderlin, J.B. (1976). The potential yield of artificial upwelling mariculture, in: Persoone, G. et al. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Ostend, Belgium, Sept. 17-23, 1975: 1. Research in mariculture at laboratory- and pilot scale. pp. 381-390
In: Persoone, G.; Jaspers, E. (Ed.) (1976). Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Ostend, Belgium, Sept. 17-23, 1975: 1. Research in mariculture at laboratory- and pilot scale. IZWO: Wetteren. ISBN 90-6281-001-2. 620 pp., more
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|Document type: Conference paper|
|Authors|| || Top |
- Roels, O.A.
- Haines, K.C.
- Sunderlin, J.B.
In our Artificial Upwelling Project in St. Croix, antarctic intermediate water is pumped continuously from 870 m depth in the sea into 45,000 I concrete pools on shore in which unialgal cultures of planktonic diatoms are grown. The pool cultures are started by inoculating them with cultures grown in 800 I tanks. The growth rate of the algae is regulated by the rate at which nutrients are supplied by the incoming deep water, thus assuring nearly complete utilization of the nutrients in the deep water. This system produces 113,550 I of nearly unialgal diatom culture per day (104-106 cells/mi) which is pumped continuously into shellfish tanks at metered rates based on the feeding activity of the animals. The total flow pumped to the shellfish matches the flow of deep water into the algal pools, so that the pool volume remains constant. The filter-feeding shellfish remove up to 90 % of the algae pumped from the pools. The yearly temperature range in the shellfish tanks is 22-29°C. The diatom clones used in the system are: Thalassiosira pseudonana (3H) from New York estuarine waters; Chaetoceros simplex (STX-105) from 200 m depth local waters, and Bellerochea polymorpha (STX-114) from 870 m deep water, both high-temperature tolerant clones, and Chaetoceros curvisetus (STX-167), from 870 m water. Ten species of shellfish have been screened for growth and survival in the St. Croix system. Seven species grew well and reached market size quickly. They are: Ostrea edulis, European oyster; Crassostrea gigas, Pacific oyster; C. gigas, Kumomoto variety; Tapes semidecussata, Japanese little-neck clams; Mercenaria campechiensis, southern clam or quahog; Fl clam a cross between M. campechiensis x M. mercenaria; Argopecten irradians, bay scallop. Pinctada martensii, pearl oyster, is also growing very rapidly in the system. Panulirus argus, spiny lobsters, Strombus gigas, queen conch and carrageenin-producing seaweeds are grown in the effluent of the shellfish tanks.