|Engineering aspects of a closed system for aquaculture|
Mock, C.R.; Neal, R.A. (1976). Engineering aspects of a closed system for aquaculture, in: Persoone, G. et al. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Ostend, Belgium, Sept. 17-23, 1975: 1. Research in mariculture at laboratory- and pilot scale. pp. 271
In: Persoone, G.; Jaspers, E. (Ed.) (1976). Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Ostend, Belgium, Sept. 17-23, 1975: 1. Research in mariculture at laboratory- and pilot scale. IZWO: Wetteren. ISBN 90-6281-001-2. 620 pp., more
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A prototype closed system for year-round aquaculture has been designed, built, and tested. Economy as well as functional control of environmental conditions were considered in the design of the system. The first above-ground units were lined with 0.05 mm liners and were 9.0 m long, 1.8 m wide, and 0.7 m deep with 0.9 m radium semicircular ends. Modular construction of end sections and walls was used to facilitate moving or changing the size of the raceways. Thermal control was enhanced by 2.54 cm polystyrofoam insulation in the walls of each raceway. Covers being tested are insulation board, suspended polyethylene and air-inflated polyethylene. Due to the unique circulation pattern in the raceway, feeding and waste removal were accomplished at the ends. Particulate wastes were removed from both ends of the raceway and separated from the water with inclined plate separators. At one end the water was put directly back into the raceway, while at the other end a bio-disc filter was used to treat the dissolved wastes before the water is returned. Filters were selected to facilitate recovery of particulate wastes and sloughed biological growth for reuse. Temperature control in the covered system was accomplished by solar heating, shading and supplemental heating when necessary. The system was composed of a fiberglass greenhouse (3.6 m x 14.4 m) with raceways protruding from either side. This greenhouse accommodated waste removal and control apparatus for six closed raceways. Levels of production achieved in this closed system were sufficient to encourage further development of this approach.