|Atlas of marine-fouling Bryozoa of New-Zealand ports and harbours|
Gordon, D.P.; Mawatari, S.F. (1992). Atlas of marine-fouling Bryozoa of New-Zealand ports and harbours. Miscellaneous publication New Zealand Oceanographic Institute 107: 1-52
In: Miscellaneous Publication New Zealand Oceanographic Institute. Division of Marine and Freshwater Science: Wellington. ISSN 0510-0054, more
Control; Harbours; Introduced species; Larvae; Ports; Bryozoa [WoRMS]; Bugula Oken, 1815 [WoRMS]; Conopeum Gray, 1848 [WoRMS]; Cryptosula Canu & Bassler, 1925 [WoRMS]; Tricellaria Fleming, 1828 [WoRMS]; New Zealand [Marine Regions]; Marine
Watersipora; Settlement season; Key to species
|Authors|| || Top |
- Gordon, D.P.
- Mawatari, S.F.
Forty species of native and exotic marine bryozoans are currently recognised as foulers of vessels and submerged artificial surfaces in New Zealand ports and harbours. Some 42% of species mentioned in a 1965 OECD catalogue of main marine-fouling organisms of European waters now occur in New Zealand and more may yet come to be recorded, based on past trends -exotic bryozoans have been coming into New Zealand at least since the 1890s, including nine species not recorded in the OECD catalogue. The most ubiquitous fouling bryozoans in New Zealand, occurring at a significant number of the ports and smaller harbours, are seven well-known subcosmopolitan species -in order of their chronological introductions these are Cryptosula pallasiana, Bugula neritina, Bugula flabellata, Tricellaria occidentalis, Bugula stolonifera, Conopeum seurati, and Watersipora subtorquata. Most have been recorded for the first time only since the late 1940s. Only 11 endemic species have been encountered as foulers in ports and harbours and these are minor components of little nuisance value.