|Assessing and protecting endangered marine species|
Powles, H.; Bradford, M.J.; Bradford, R.G.; Doubleday, W.G.; Innes, S.; Levings, C.D. (2000). Assessing and protecting endangered marine species. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 57: 669-676
In: ICES Journal of Marine Science. Academic Press: London. ISSN 1054-3139, more
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|Document type: Conference paper|
|Authors|| || Top |
- Powles, H.
- Bradford, M.J.
- Bradford, R.G.
- Doubleday, W.G.
- Innes, S.
- Levings, C.D., more
Documented extinctions of marine and anadromous species are rare, but extinction of species and extirpation of major populations have occurred -there are cases of near extinction- and there may be undocumented extinctions. Factors associated with known extinctions and near extinctions include specific life-history characteristics (e.g. low fecundity, high age at maturity, low mobility), habitat degradation, high value and high susceptibility to harvesting, ecological specialization. Harvesting mortality, targeted or incidental, is implicated in some known extinctions or near extinctions, and may act synergistically with other threats. Criteria to make assessments of risk of extinction more consistent have been developed, but given the limited experience to date with extinctions in the marine environment there have been questions about applying these to some marine species. The wide range of life history characteristics in marine species suggests that a range of approaches to assessing extinction risk will be needed. Protocols for defining significant population units are also required since protection of populations is part of protecting endangered species. Keeping species and populations well away from endangered status should be the main goal of conservation programmes. Implementation of precautionary conservation frameworks for exploited species could be a sound approach to preventing "endangerment".