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Specific criteria in Grania (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae)
Coates, K.A. (1984). Specific criteria in Grania (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae), in: Bonomi, G. et al. (Ed.) Aquatic Oligochaeta: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, held in Pallanza, Italy, September 21-24, 1982. Developments in Hydrobiology, 24: pp. 45-50
In: Bonomi, G.; Erséus, C. (Ed.) (1984). Aquatic Oligochaeta: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, held in Pallanza, Italy, September 21-24, 1982. Reprinted from Hydrobiologia, vol. 115. Developments in Hydrobiology, 24. W. Junk Publishers: Dordrecht. ISBN 90-6193-775-2. 240 pp., more
In: Dumont, H.J. (Ed.) Developments in Hydrobiology. Kluwer Academic/Springer: The Hague; London; Boston; Dordrecht. ISSN 0167-8418, more

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  • Coates, K.A. (1984). Specific criteria in Grania (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae). Hydrobiologia 115: 45-50, more

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  • Coates, K.A.

Abstract
    The structure of the penial bulb and male efferent duct system of Grania species may be used in addition to setal pattern and spermathecal shape to distinguish species. Six penial bulb types are distinguished: (1) a simple, small, glandular bulb surrounding the male pore; (2) a small, glandular bulb, with a large, associated, dorso-medial gland mass; (3) a small glandular bulb, medial to the male pore, with an elongate male bursa (the aglandular sac), the vas deferens exitting directly into the invaginated male pore; (4) a glandular bulb with an aglandular sac and a small, cuticular stylet embedded in the bulb, extending from the ectal end of the vas deferens; (5) a glandular bulb and an aglandular sac with a long stylet extending from the vas deferens, through the bulb into the sac; and (6) glandular bulb reduced or absent, with or without an aglandular sac; with a long stylet and other prominent modifications, usually muscular, of the vas deferens. The details of the male duct structure were consistent within specimens grouped on the basis of setal distribution and shape and detailed spermathecal structure. Diverse male duct patterns are found within the polytypic species G. macrochaeta and G. postclitellochaeta. The positions of the spermathecal and male pores in their respective segments are distinctive for some species.

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