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Unnatural oceans
Jackson, J.B.C.; Sala, E. (2001). Unnatural oceans, in: Gili, J.-M. et al. (Ed.) A Marine Science Odyssey into the 21st Century. Scientia Marina (Barcelona), 65(Suppl. 2): pp. 273-281
In: Gili, J.-M.; Pretus, J.L.; Packard, T.T. (Ed.) (2001). A Marine Science Odyssey into the 21st Century. Scientia Marina (Barcelona), 65(Suppl. 2). Institut de Ciències del Mar: Barcelona. 326 pp., more
In: Scientia Marina (Barcelona). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Institut de Ciènces del Mar: Barcelona. ISSN 0214-8358, more
Peer reviewed article  

Also published as
  • Jackson, J.B.C.; Sala, E. (2001). Unnatural oceans. Sci. Mar. (Barc.) 65(Suppl. 2): 273-281, more

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  • Jackson, J.B.C.
  • Sala, E.

    Ecological understanding of the oceans is based on an unnatural mix of mostly small species whose trophic relations are distorted to an unknown degree by the overfishing of megafauna including sharks, sea turtles, sea cows, seals, and whales. Living habitats like seagrass beds, kelp forests, and coral reefs that once provided critical 3-dimensional habitats for refuge and reproduction of most of the biodiversity of the oceans are also greatly reduced by fishing and other factors. Successful restoration and conservation require a more realistic understanding of the ecology of pristine marine ecosystems that can only be obtained by a combination of retrospective analyses, modeling, and intensive studies of succession in very large marine reserves.

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