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On the estuarine transport reversal in deep layers of the Gulf of Finland
Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.; Lips, U. (2003). On the estuarine transport reversal in deep layers of the Gulf of Finland, in: Ohlson, M. et al. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Baltic Oceanographers (CBO), Stockholm, Sweden, 25-29 November 2001. Journal of Sea Research, 49(4): pp. 267-274
In: Ohlson, M.; Omstedt, A.; Turner, D. (Ed.) (2003). Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Baltic Oceanographers (CBO), Stockholm, Sweden, 25-29 November 2001. Journal of Sea Research, 49(4). Elsevier: Amsterdam. 227-374 pp., more
In: Journal of Sea Research. Elsevier/Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Amsterdam; Den Burg. ISSN 1385-1101, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Document type: Conference paper

Keywords
    Baroclinic motion; Deep currents; Deep layer; Density flow; Estuarine dynamics; Mathematical models; Volume transport; Wind-driven circulation; ANE, Baltic, Finland Gulf [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Elken, J.
  • Raudsepp, U.
  • Lips, U., more

Abstract
    The Gulf of Finland is a 400-km long and 48-135-km wide tributary estuary of the Baltic Sea featuring the longitudinal two-layer estuarine flow modified by transverse circulation. Longitudinal volume transport in the deep layer is investigated by decomposing it into an averaged, slowly changing estuarine component (due to large-scale density gradients, river discharge and mean wind stress) and wind-driven fluctuating component. The derived expression relates the total deep-layer transport to the projection of wind stress fluctuation to a site-specific direction. The relationship is tested and calibrated by the results from numerical experiments carried out with the three-dimensional baroclinic circulation model. For the entrance to the Gulf of Finland, winds from northeast support standard estuarine circulation and winds from southwest work against the density-driven and riverine flow. The deep estuarine transport may be reversed if the southwesterly wind component exceeds the mean value by 4-5.5 m s-1. According to the data from hydrographic observations in the western Gulf of Finland, an event of advective halocline disappearance was documented in August 1998. Comparison of the deep-water transport estimates calculated from the wind data in 1998 with the observed salinity variations showed that the events of rapid decay of estuarine stratification were coherent with the estimated reversals of deep-layer volume transport, i.e. events of salt wedge export from the gulf.

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