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Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill
Peterson, C.H.; Rice, S.D.; Short, J.W.; Esler, D.; Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Irons, D.B. (2003). Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Science (Wash.) 302(5653): 2082-2086
In: Science (Washington). American Association for the Advancement of Science: New York, N.Y. ISSN 0036-8075, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 


Authors  Top 
  • Peterson, C.H.
  • Rice, S.D.
  • Short, J.W.
  • Esler, D.
  • Bodkin, J.L.
  • Ballachey, B.E.
  • Irons, D.B.

    The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows that current practices for assessing ecological risks of oil in the oceans and, by extension, other toxic sources should be changed. Previously, it was assumed that impacts to populations derive almost exclusively from acute mortality. However, in the Alaskan coastal ecosystem, unexpected persistence of toxic subsurface oil and chronic exposures, even at sublethal levels, have continued to affect wildlife. Delayed population reductions and cascades of indirect effects postponed recovery. Development of ecosystem-based toxicology is required to understand and ultimately predict chronic, delayed, and indirect long-term risks and impacts.

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