|Avoiding current oversights in marine reserve design|
Gaines, S.D.; Gaylord, B.; Largier, J.L. (2003). Avoiding current oversights in marine reserve design. Ecol. Appl. 13(1, Suppl.): S32-S46
In: Ecological Applications. Ecological Society of America: Tempe, AZ. ISSN 1051-0761, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Gaines, S.D.
- Gaylord, B.
- Largier, J.L.
The pun in the above title reflects two points. First, marine life cycles commonlyinclude a dispersive juvenile stage that is moved about by ocean currents. This stageoften is the predominant, or only, means of dispersal that connects spatially disjunct populations.As a consequence, details of dispersal likely play a critical role in determiningthe effectiveness of marine reserves as a management and conservation tool. Curiously,however (and this is the second point of the title), although dozens of models for marinereserves now exist, few actually account explicitly for larval dispersal. Moreover, thosethat do include dispersal, do so almost exclusively by considering it to be a nondirectionalspreading process (diffusion), ignoring the effects of directional transport by currents (advection).Here we develop a population dynamical model for marine organisms with relativelysedentary adults whose larvae are transported in a simple flow field with bothdiffusive spreading and directional characteristics. We find that advection can play a dominantrole in determining the effectiveness of different reserve configurations. Two of themost important consequences are: (1) with strong currents, multiple reserves can be markedlymore effective than single reserves of equivalent total size; and (2) in the presenceof strong currents, reserves can significantly outperform traditional, effort-based managementstrategies in terms of fisheries yield, and do so with less risk. These results suggestthat successful reserve design may require considerable new efforts to examine explicitlythe role of dispersal of young.