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Dispersal potential of marine invertebrates in diverse habitats
Grantham, B.A.; Eckert, G.L.; Shanks, A.L. (2003). Dispersal potential of marine invertebrates in diverse habitats. Ecol. Appl. 13(1, Suppl.): S108-S116
In: Ecological Applications. Ecological Society of America: Tempe, AZ. ISSN 1051-0761, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Grantham, B.A.
  • Eckert, G.L.
  • Shanks, A.L.

    Life-history parameters were used to estimate the dispersal potential of 1021marine macroinvertebrates recorded in species lists from 91 sites comprising rocky intertidal,subtidal, kelp forest, sandy beach, and soft-bottom habitats in Washington, Oregon,and California. Mean species richness was significantly greater in the California rockysubtidal habitat. Data on development mode, planktonic larval duration, rafting potential,and adult mobility were compiled, and summaries of the dispersal potentials of taxa withineach habitat type were generated and compared. In summary, development mode was knownor estimated for 76% of species; larval planktonic duration for 49%; adult mobility for76%; and rafting potential for 46%. In comparisons of species’ life-history traits amonghabitats, sand-dominated habitats were distinct from rocky habitats. In rocky habitats, ;42%of species had planktonic feeding larvae, 43% had planktonic nonfeeding larvae, and 15%had nonplanktonic larvae. Sandy intertidal habitats had higher proportions of taxa withnondispersing, nonplanktonic larvae and lower proportions of planktonic feeding and nonfeedinglarvae than all other sites. Soft-bottom subtidal communities had the highest proportionof taxa with planktonic feeding development and larvae with planktonic lifespans.30 d. Species in soft-bottom subtidal sites, therefore, have the greatest potential forextensive larval dispersal, whereas species in soft-bottom intertidal sites have the leastpotential for larval dispersal. In these sites with limited larval dispersal potential, there isgreater potential for adult dispersal through adult movement and rafting. These differencesin the dispersal potential of larvae and adults suggest that the effect of environmentalchanges and the effectiveness of reserves may differ between habitats. Conservation methods,including the use of marine reserves, must therefore be tailored to the habitat of interestif effective protection of community resources is to be achieved.

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