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Reduction of sand demand for shore protection
Raudkivi, A.J.; Dette, H.-H. (2002). Reduction of sand demand for shore protection. Coast. Eng. 45(3-4): 239-259.
In: Coastal Engineering: An International Journal for Coastal, Harbour and Offshore Engineers. Elsevier: Amsterdam; Lausanne; New York; Oxford; Shannon; Tokyo. ISSN 0378-3839, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Shoreprotection; Sanddemand; Surf zone; Surf zone profile; Perched surf zone; Beach; Beach nourishment; Dune; Dune protection; Permeable pile groynes

Authors  Top 
  • Raudkivi, A.J.
  • Dette, H.-H.

    Beach nourishment is an environmentally preferred method ofshoreprotection, but the annual sand requirement may lead to substantial maintenance costs. The shoreline processes, involving the surf zone, beach and dune, are reviewed with the aim of reducing the annual sand requirement of eroding shorelines. It is shown that surf zones with equilibrium profiles, on which the wave energy conversion is evenly distributed across the surf zone, from experience for given conditions indicate least loss ofsand. On steep, eroding shorelines it may be difficult to establish an equilibrium profile. For such cases, the use of perched surf zones is recommended, which are supported at the seaward limit by an underwater sill. Forreductionof littoral transport, the use of pervious pile groynes is recommended. These are arguably more efficient than impervious groynes. The sand loss from a usually dry beach by raised water levels is shown to be a function of the beach slope and is least when the storm waves at raised water levels do not cut an erosion escarpment. The loss ofsand from a dune by infrequent severe storm tides can be prevented with the aid of a built-in membrane. These sand losses are usually large and constitute an uneconomic use of this sand resource. The proposed concepts and measures are linked to existing knowledge, augmented by data from the large wave flume (LWF) in Germany and field data from the North and Baltic Sea coasts.

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