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Growth aspects of Flustra foliacea (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) in laboratory culture
Kahle, J.; Liebezeit, G.; Gerdes, G. (2003). Growth aspects of Flustra foliacea (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) in laboratory culture. Hydrobiologia 503: 237-244
In: Hydrobiologia. Springer: The Hague. ISSN 0018-8158, more
Peer reviewed article  

Also published as
  • Kahle, J.; Liebezeit, G.; Gerdes, G. (2003). Growth aspects of Flustra foliacea (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) in laboratory culture, in: Jones, M.B. et al. (Ed.) Migrations and Dispersal of Marine Organisms: Proceedings of the 37th European Marine Biology Symposium held in Reykjavik, Iceland, 5-9 August 2002. Developments in Hydrobiology, 174: pp. 237-244, more

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Proceedings [56465]
Document type: Conference paper

    Biomass; Growth rate; Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Kahle, J.
  • Liebezeit, G.
  • Gerdes, G.

    Flustra foliacea is a cheilostome marine bryozoan which, after initial horizontal growth during the first year, changes to erect growth thereafter. Appraising this slow-growing species for biotechnological use, required the development of cultivation methods for economical biomass production. Vegetative reproduction via cuttings, as employed in the horticulture of various plants, was tested. Fronds of F. foliacea were cut into pieces (10-150 mg fresh weight) and fixed in longitudinally cut silicon tubes. Bryozoa were fed with a mixture of Isochrysis galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta and Cryptomonas sp. yielding growth rates of 0.3%+/-0.02 day(-1) of the initial fresh weight. Growth of the colony occurred firstly at the original growth margin, but later also at the transections, including the side fixed in the silicon tube, opposite to the growth margin. After three months of growth, the two layers of zooids split at the growth margin, forming two monolayers. This growth feature, not described previously for Flustra foliacea, was observed under experimental and natural conditions, and is interpreted as the beginning of one type of ramification. According to our findings, vegetative reproduction of F. foliacea under laboratory conditions is possible and might be an alternative to natural resources regarding biomass of this species.

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