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Material transport from the nearshore to the basinal environment in the southern Baltic Sea: 1. Processes and mass estimates
Christiansen, C.; Edelvang, K.; Emeis, K.; Graf, G.; Jähmlich, S.; Kozuche, J.; Laima, M.; Leipe, T.; Löffler, A.; Lund-Hansen, L.C.; Miltner, A.; Pazdro, K.; Pempkowiak, J.; Shimmield, G.B.; Shimmield, T.; Smith, J.; Voss, M.; Witt, G. (2002). Material transport from the nearshore to the basinal environment in the southern Baltic Sea: 1. Processes and mass estimates. J. Mar. Syst. 35(3-4): 133-150. dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0924-7963(02)00126-4
In: Journal of Marine Systems. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0924-7963, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keywords
    Aggregates; Models; Resuspension; Sediment dynamics; Sedimentation; Transport; ANE, Poland, Pomerania [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Christiansen, C.
  • Edelvang, K.
  • Emeis, K.
  • Graf, G., more
  • Jähmlich, S.
  • Kozuche, J.
  • Laima, M.
  • Leipe, T.
  • Löffler, A.
  • Lund-Hansen, L.C.
  • Miltner, A.
  • Pazdro, K.
  • Pempkowiak, J.
  • Shimmield, G.B., more
  • Shimmield, T.
  • Smith, J.
  • Voss, M.
  • Witt, G.

Abstract
    Processes involved in erosion, transport and deposition of cohesive materials are studied in a transect from shallow (16 m) to deep (47 m) water of the SW Baltic Sea. The wave- and current-induced energy input to the seabed in shallow water is high with strong variability and suspended matter concentrations may double within a few hours. Primary settling fluxes (from sedimentation traps) are less than 10 g m-2 day-1, whereas resuspension fluxes (evaluated from sedimentation flux gradients) are 15-20 times higher and the residence time for suspended matter in the water column is 1-2 days. Settling velocities of aggregates are on average six times higher than for individual particles resulting in an enhanced downward transport of organic matter. Wave-induced resuspension (four to six times per month) takes place with higher shear stresses on the bottom than current-induced resuspension (three to five times per month). The short residence time in the water column and the frequent resuspension events provide a fast operating benthic-pelagic coupling. Due to the high-energy input, the shallow water areas are nondepositional on time scales longer than 1-2 weeks. The sediment is sand partly covered by a thin fluff layer during low-energy periods. The presence of the fluff layer keeps the resuspension threshold very low (<0.023 N m-2) throughout the year. Evaluated from 3-D sediment transport modeling, transport from shallow to deep water is episodic. The net main directions are towards the Arkona Basin (5.5×105 t per year) and the Bornholm Basin (3.7×105 t per year). Energy input to the bottom in deep water is low and takes place much less frequently. Wave-induced resuspension occurs on average once per month. Residence time of particles (based on radioactive isotopes) in the water column is half a year and the sediment accumulation rate is 2.2 mm year-1 in the Arkona Basin.

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