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Advancement of rotifer culture and manipulation techniques in Europe
Dhert, P.; Rombaut, G.; Suantika, G.; Sorgeloos, P. (2001). Advancement of rotifer culture and manipulation techniques in Europe, in: (2001). VLIZ Coll. Rep. 31(2001). VLIZ Collected Reprints: Marine and Coastal Research in Flanders, 31: pp. chapter 29 [Subsequent publication]
In: (2001). VLIZ Coll. Rep. 31(2001). VLIZ Collected Reprints: Marine and Coastal Research in Flanders, 31. Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ): Oostende, more
In: VLIZ Collected Reprints: Marine and Coastal Research in Flanders. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee: Oostende. ISSN 1376-3822, more

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Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 98652 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Animal nutrition; Biofilters; Diets; Fatty acids; Fish larvae; Food organisms; Marine fish; Nutritive value; Ozone; Rearing; Recirculating systems; Water quality; Bacteria [WoRMS]; Pisces [WoRMS]; Rotifera [WoRMS]; Europe [gazetteer]; Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water
Author keywords
    rotifer production; live feeds; HUFA; DHA; EPA

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Abstract
    Since no artificial feed formulation for first feeding of marine larval fish has been developed yet, live prey feeding remains essential in commercial marine hatchery operations. Because cultured rotifers are relatively poor in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: 22:6n-3), it is essential and therefore common practice to enrich these live prey with emulsions of marine oils. The short-term exposure to oil emulsions results in lipid-encapsulated rotifers with high EPA and DHA levels. However, these rotifers are prone to fast losses of their gut content and show a distortion in their protein/lipid balance. Rather than submerging rotifers in oil emulsions, it is often preferred to use formulated culture diets when medium to low enrichment values are needed in live prey. The use of these diets contributes not only to the filling of the gut of the rotifers with nutrients, it generally creates a more stable entire body composition which is important especially when rotifers are not consumed immediately by the larvae. New culture techniques for rotifers, such as closed recirculation systems, are offering new possibilities for continuous supplies of high quality rotifers at 10 times higher densities than in batch cultures. The production increase in these systems is explained by the better water quality obtained by the introduction of protein skimmers. ozone treatment, and biological filtration. Although disinfection of rotifers remains a bottleneck, it has been observed that rotifer populations cultured at high densities are not prone to higher bacterial infestation. Also, the problem of unexplained mortalities in batch cultures seems to be partly solved by the introduction of recirculation systems or by bacterial management (introduction of probionts). which allow more reliable rotifer production.

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