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Formation of nitro musk adducts of rainbow trout hemoglobin for potential use as biomarkers of exposure
Mottaleb, M.A.; Zhao, X.; Curtis, L.R.; Sovocool, G.W. (2004). Formation of nitro musk adducts of rainbow trout hemoglobin for potential use as biomarkers of exposure. Aquat. Toxicol. 67(4): 315-324.
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Biomarkers; Fish; Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water
Author keywords
    biomarkers; nitro musk; Hb adducts; fish

Authors  Top 
  • Mottaleb, M.A.
  • Zhao, X.
  • Curtis, L.R.
  • Sovocool, G.W.

    The high use of nitro musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) as fragrances, and their persistence and bioaccumulation potential make them ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The 4-amino-MX (AMX) and 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolites have been detected in trout fish hemoglobin (Hb) samples by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twelve Hb samples prepared from rainbow trout that were exposed to MX and MK, over a period of 24 and 72 h, were analyzed. Amino metabolites were liberated by basic hydrolysis and extracted from the fish Hb into n-hexane. The extract was concentrated, analyzed, and spiked with a standard solution (80 pg/µl) of AMX or AMK and reanalyzed. Concentrations of AMX from 10 to 25 ng/g were detected in Hb from fish taken 24 and 72 h after MX exposure. At 24 and 72 h after MK exposure, the concentration of AMK was found to be 25-51 ng/g and 9.5-25 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of AMK in Hb from two of the three trout were substantially lower after 72 h compared with 24 h exposure. The AMX and AMK metabolites were not detected in four control samples. Average recoveries exceeding 89 and 86% could be achieved for AMX and AMK, respectively, with a coefficient of variation (CV) around 5%.

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