|Effects of alkylphenols on redox status in first spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)|Hasselberg, L.; Meier, S.; Svardal, A. (2004). Effects of alkylphenols on redox status in first spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquat. Toxicol. 69(1): 95-105. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.04.004
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Hasselberg, L.
- Meier, S.
- Svardal, A.
Offshore oil production releases large amounts of lipophilic compounds in produced water and into the ocean. The discharge of produced water from the Norwegian petroleum sector has increased from 26 million m3 in 1993 to 120 million m3 in 2001, and it continues to increase. Produced water contains significant amounts of alkylphenols, which have been reported to be estrogenic, causing endocrine disruption in fish. In year 2000, approximately 44 tons of alkylphenols were released on the Norwegian continental shelf in connection with discharge of produced water. Except from being estrogenic, relatively little is known about the effects of alkylphenols when released in the marine environment. Our objective was to study how alkylphenols affect the redox status in first spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) of both sexes. Model compounds tested included 4-tert-butylphenol (C4), 4-n-pentylphenol (C5), 4-n-hexylphenol (C6) and 4-n-heptylphenol (C7), all found in produced water. First spawning Atlantic cod were force-fed a mixture of these four alkylphenols, ranging between 0.02 and 80ppm or 5ppm 17β-estradiol (E2), for 1 or 4 weeks. Increased hepatic total glutathione concentration in response to alkylphenol exposure was detected in female fish compared to control group after 1-week exposure, an effect not seen after 4 weeks. Furthermore, hepatic total glutathione concentration was sex dependent, where male fish sampled after 4 weeks had higher levels of glutathione than female fish. Increased glutathione reductase catalytic activities in both male and female fish were seen after exposure to 0.02ppm alkylphenol mixture in 4 weeks. The glutathione S-transferase activity was only affected in male fish exposed to 0.02ppm alkylphenols, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased in female fish exposed to 0.02 ppm alkylphenol mixture for 1 week. The increase of hepatic total glutathione content as well as the effects on glutathione reductase activities suggests that alkylphenol exposure affects the redox status in Atlantic cod.