This technical paper is intended mainly as a background document for use in training courses on various aspects of river fisheries. Part 1 deals with general considerations such as the form of river systems, fish ecology and the functioning of the fishery. The second part presents some methods which have been used to successfully assess river fish stocks and the fisheries which depend on them. The third part examines other uses of river basins and their effects on the fishery. The final part considers various means for management of the fishery including such extensive and intensive aquaculture techniques as are directly related to river fisheries.