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The Development of Global Operational Oceanography: IGOSS the Foundation
Landis, R.C. (2004). The Development of Global Operational Oceanography: IGOSS the Foundation. JCOMM Technical Report 27: 1-18
In: JCOMM Technical Report. World Meteorological Organisation: Geneva, more

Also published as
  • Landis, R.C. (2004). The Development of Global Operational Oceanography: IGOSS the Foundation, in: Proceedings of the International Seminar to Celebrate the Brussels Maritime Conference of 1853: An Historical Perspective of Operational Marine Meteorology and Oceanography Under the High Patronage of HM King Albert II of Belgium, Residence Palace, Brussels, Belgium, 17-18 November 2003 [CD-ROM]. JCOMM Technical Report, 27: pp. 1-18, more

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Document type: Conference paper

    Foundations; Oceanography; Marine

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  • Landis, R.C.

    Several scientists and scientific groups have provided definitions of Operational Oceanography. In most of these cases all suggest that the concept includes the systematic observation of the ocean, and the use of the data in scientifically derived applications, such that timely information is made available to decision makers. Operational Oceanography is often drawn as a parallel to Operational Meteorology in general and more specifically Meteorological Services. In the early 1960’s, the establishment of the World Weather Watch, as well as other activities and events led groups of visionary ocean scientists to begin a process that could lead to a global system of ocean observations and services. The realization of these visions is now best represented by the relatively new Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and its implementation body the Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM). The foundation for GOOS and JCOMM has resulted largely from the activities established through the Integrated Global Ocean Station (Services) System (IGOSS) under the joint responsibility of the IOC and WMO. This paper reports on the global infrastructure of data buoys, ships of opportunity, real time tide monitoring, radio frequency allocation, data code forms and exchange, observing standards and practices, and atmosphere-ocean integration processes that have been established within the framework of IGOSS over the last half century, and that have been important to the development of Operational Oceanography.

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