|Fasciole pathways in spatangoid echinoids: a new source of phylogenetically informative characters|
Smith, A.B.; Stockley, B. (2005). Fasciole pathways in spatangoid echinoids: a new source of phylogenetically informative characters. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 144(1): 15-35
In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Academic Press: London. ISSN 0024-4082, more
Functional morphology; Spines; Taxonomy; Echinodermata [WoRMS]; Marine
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Fascioles are important early-forming structures that play a key role in allowing irregular echinoids to burrow. They have traditionally been grouped into a small number of types according to their general position on the test, but this masks some significant differences that exist. The precise course that fasciole bands follow over the test plating has been mapped in detail for 89 species of spatangoid echinoids, representing the great majority of fasciole-bearing genera both living and fossil. Within each fasciole type, discrete and conserved patterns can be distinguished, differing both in which plates they are initiated on, and on whether they cross plate growth centres or are late-stage bands positioned towards the edge of the plate. Fasciole position is most highly conserved in the anterior and lateral interambulacral plates and on the earliest forming bands. The existence of different subanal fasciole patterns in the Micrasteridae and Brissidae suggests that these may have evolved independently. Schizasterid and hemiasterine spatangoids can each be subdivided into two major clades, and brissid spatangoids into three clades based on detailed patterns of their fascioles. Plotting fasciole pathways over test architecture provides a rich new source of phylogenetically informative characters.